Stroke or Cerebrovascular Accident(CVA) is the third commonest cause of death in developed Countries. It is uncommon below the age of 40yrs and is more common in Males.However,16% of Women compared with 8% of Men die of a Stroke. The incidence of Stroke is decreasing in in the age range of 30-60 years as Hypertension is recognized and treated.In the Elderly population,Stroke remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is usually of rapid onset and by definition, it lasts longer than 24hrs if the Patient survives. Stroke atimes occurs at rest or during activity. There could be- A COMPLETED STROKE :is when the neurological deficit has reached its maximum usually within 6hrs A STROKE ‘IN-EVOLUTION’;is when symptoms and signs are getting worse,usually within 24hrs of onset A MINOR STROKE: These Patoents recover without a significant deficit usually within 1 week TRANSIENT ISCHAEMIC ATTACK (TIA). This is a focal deficit lasting less than 24hrs.There is COMPLETE recovery. The attack is usually of sudden onset.TIAs have a tendency to recur.
Stroke may also be caused by tumour,abscess,subdural haematoma etc
Signs of a Stroke are many but the common ones are -Inability to lift either the upper or lower limb or both on same side of the body -Weakness of the affected side of the body. Loss of sensation on the affected side Deviation of the Tongue and mouth to one side. Loss of furrows on the forehead Inability to whistle or puff out the cheeks Slurred speech or inability to complete sentence
Risk Factors are Hypertension Diabetes Mellitus Obesity Family history Cigarette smoking Hyperlipidemia Oral contraceptives Alcohol Age( advanced age)
Prevention: Avoid the risk faactors When stroke occurs, take the affected individual to a Standard hospital for treatment or management.